What are neurons?

The job of a neuron (nerve cell) is to transmit electrical impulses (messages) around the body. The neurons that lie outside of the spinal cord are divided into motor and sensory neurons. Sensory neurons Transmit messages from our senses to our central nervous system. Motor neurons Transmit messages from our central nervous system to our […]

The structure of the nervous system

The nervous system can be divided up into two sub systems the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Central nervous system (CNS) The central nervous system is the bodies think tank! Or you can also call it the control centre. It is comprised of the brain and the spinal cord. All human movement is […]

The functions of the nervous system

The main role of the nervous system is to maintain homeostasis within the body. It does this via a large network of motor and sensory neurons that transmit chemical and electrical messages around the body. The functions of the nervous system Sensation The body gathers information about the internal and external environment via sensory neutrons. […]

The roles of muscles

Muscles have different roles when an exercise is carried out, in fact there are multiple muscles working in different ways whenever we move. The Antagonist The name given to the muscle that relaxes when the prime mover contracts. The Agonist The name given to the muscle that is the prime mover for a given joint […]

Types of muscle contractions

When we think of muscles flexing we perhaps think of bodybuilders flexing their biceps during a bicep curl. While this certainly is one of the types of muscle contraction it is not the only type. There are in fact three types of muscle contraction concentric, eccentric and static, split into two groups.  Isotonic Muscle tension whilst shortening or […]

Muscle origins and insertions

All of our skeletal muscles have a beginning and an end. The beginning, where the muscle originates is called the origin. The end of the muscle is called the insertion. Origin The easiest way for me to remember muscle origins is to think of the end of the muscle that remains static during contraction (the […]

Location of skeletal muscles…. and their actions

If you have already ploughed through our anatomical terminology section then you will know that when we refer to the muscles on the front of the body we use the term anterior. When we are referring to the muscles to the rear of the body we use the term posterior. Anterior muscles Muscle Location Action […]

Anatomical terminology

When you are studying anatomy and physiology for your fitness instructor qualifications, sports therapy exams or even just for fun! It is a lot easier if you learn the following terms that are commonly used in anatomy textbooks. Anatomical terminology Anterior – in front, at the front of the body. Posterior – behind, at the […]

Skeletal muscle fibres

We all have a mixture of different skeletal muscle fibres within our bodies. Some of our fibres lend themselves particularly well to endurance activities whilst others and more suited to higher intensity activities. The factor that determines our distribution of fibre type within our bodies is genetics (our parents). Although we can not change the […]

The structure of skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscles are actually comprised of several smaller structures. The following components make up the structure of skeletal muscle. They are listed in order of largest to smallest. Epimysium The connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle belly. Fasciculi A bundle of muscle fibres. Perimysium The name of the connective tissue that surrounds each bundle […]